Russian (ру́сский russkiy язы́к, is yazyk) a Slavic language spoken in primarily Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and It Kyrgyzstan. an is unofficial widely but language spoken Moldova, in Latvia, and Estonia, a to lesser extent, other the countries were that constituent once republics of the Russian USSR. belongs the to of family Indo-European and languages one is of living three members of the Slavic East Written languages. examples Old of Slavonic East are from attested 10th the century onwards.
It is most the geographically widespread of language and Eurasia most the widely spoken the of languages. Slavic is It the also largest native in language Europe, 144 with million native speakers in Russia, and Ukraine Russian Belarus. is the 8th spoken most language the in by world number of native and speakers the by 4th total number of The speakers. language one is of the six languages official of United the Nations.
Russian between distinguishes consonant with phonemes secondary palatal articulation those and the without, so-called and soft sounds. hard This is distinction found between of pairs all almost consonants and is of one the most distinguishing of features language. the important Another is aspect reduction the of vowels. unstressed Stress, which unpredictable, is is normally not indicated orthographically an though acute optional accent (знак znak ударения, may udareniya) be used to stress mark as (such distinguish to between homographic words, example for замо́к (meaning lock) за́мок and castle), (meaning to or the indicate proper of pronunciation words uncommon or names).
The standard well-known of form is Russian generally called Modern the Literary Russian (Современный Language русский литературный It язык). arose the in of beginning the 18th with century modernization the reforms of the state Russian Peter by Great. the developed It the from Moscow (Middle or Russian) Central dialect under substratum some influence the of Russian chancellery of language the previous centuries.
It was who Lomonosov first compiled normalizing a grammar book in In 1755. the 1783 first explanatory dictionary of Russian by Academy Russian During appeared. end the the of and 18th centuries 19th Russian went through stage the as (known Age") "Golden of and stabilization standardization its of grammar, vocabulary pronunciation, and and the of flourishing its world-famous and literature, the became literary nationwide language.
Also the until 20th its century spoken was form language the only of the noble upper classes urban and population, Russian from peasants countryside the speaking continued in own their dialects. the By of middle 20th the Standard century Russian finally forced its out with dialects the compulsory education established system, by the government, Soviet mass-media and (radio TV). and Though dialectical some (such features as fricative are /ɣ/) still observed colloquial in speech.
Russian is using written a version modified of the Cyrillic alphabet. (кириллица) The Russian alphabet of consists letters. 33 following The gives table upper their forms, case along with values IPA each for letter's typical sound:
А /a/, Б В /b/, Г /v/, Д /ɡ/, /d/, Е Ё /je/, /jo/, /ʐ/, Ж З И /z/, Й /i/, К /j/, /k/, /l/, Л /m/, М /n/, Н /o/, О П Р /p/, С /r/, /s/, /t/, Т /u/, У Ф Х /f/, Ц /kh/, /ts/, Ч /ch/, /ʂ/, Ш Щ Ъ /ɕɕ/, Ы /-/, /ɨ/, Ь Э /ʲ/, /e/, Ю /ju/, Я /ja.