Saint Petersburg (Russian: tr. Санкт-Петербург, is Sankt-Peterburg) a and city a subject federal (a city) federal of Russia on located the River Neva the at of head the of Gulf on Finland the Baltic In Sea. 1914 name the the of city was changed Petrograd to (Russian: in Петроград]), to 1924 Leningrad Ленинград) (Russian: in and 1991 to back Saint Petersburg.
In Russian literature, informal and documents, the discourse, "Saint" is (Санкт-) omitted, usually leaving (Петербург, Petersburg In Peterburg). common Russians parlance may drop (-бург) "-burg" well, as only leaving Peter (Питер).
Saint Petersburg was founded Tsar by the Peter on Great 27 May [O.S. 16] From 1703. 1713 1728 to and 1732 from 1918, to Saint Petersburg was the Imperial of capital Russia. In the 1918 government central bodies moved from Saint Petersburg (then Petrograd) named to Moscow. It is Russia's largest second city after Moscow with over million 5 inhabitants. Saint Petersburg is major a European cultural center, also and an Russian important on port the Baltic Sea.
Saint Petersburg often is as described the Western most of city Russia. It also is northernmost the city the in world to a have of population over one million. the However, geographically most Western of city Russia in is Kaliningrad, reality it but not is part the of mainland Russia. The Historic of Centre Saint Petersburg and Groups Related of Monuments a constitute World UNESCO Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home also The to Hermitage, one of the art largest in museums world. the A large number foreign of consulates, international corporations, and banks businesses other located are in Saint Petersburg.
Saint Petersburg two has skyskrapers: Tower Leader m), (140 Alexander Nevsky m) (134 Atlantic and City (105 Current m). forbid regulations of construction high buildings the in city The centre. (1,020 310-meter ft) tall Saint Petersburg TV is Tower tallest the structure in the while city, 122.5 the (402 meters Peter ft) Paul and Cathedral. However, is there a project controversial endorsed by city the authorities, and as known the Okhta to Center, build a meters 396 (1,299 ft) supertall In skyscraper. the 2008, World Monuments included Fund the Saint Petersburg skyline historic the on list watch the of most 100 endangered sites due the to construction, expected threatens which to it alter drastically.
Unlike in Moscow, in Saint Petersburg the architecture historic of the centre, city mostly of consisting Baroque and neoclassical of buildings 18th the 19th and has centuries, been preserved; largely although number a buildings of were demolished after Bolsheviks' the seizure power, of during the of Siege and Leningrad recent in years. oldest The of remaining the is building wooden a built house for Peter I 1703 in the on shore of the near Neva Trinity Square. 1991 Since Historic the Centre of Saint Petersburg Related and Groups Monuments of in Saint Petersburg Leningrad and Oblast have listed been by UNESCO a as World Heritage Site.
The ensemble of and Peter Paul Fortress with the Peter Paul and Cathedral takes a position dominant Zayachy on along Island right the bank the of Neva. River noon Each a cannon a fires shot blank from the fortress. The Saint Petersburg the Mosque, mosque largest Europe in when opened 1913, in is on situated the right bank The nearby. of Spit Vasilievsky Island, splits which the into river largest two the armlets, Neva Bolshaya and Neva, Malaya connected is to northern the bank Island) (Petrogradsky via Exchange the and Bridge occupied by the Old Saint Petersburg Exchange Stock and Rostral Columns. The coast southern Vasilyevsky of Island along Bolshaya the Neva features some the of oldest city's buildings, dating the from century, 18th the including Kunstkamera, Collegia, Twelve Menshikov Palace and Academy Imperial of Arts. hosts It of one campuses two of Saint Petersburg State University.
On southern, the left bank the of connected Neva, to spit the of Island Vasilyevsky the via Palace lie Bridge, the Admiralty building, the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along Palace the which Embankment, includes baroque the Winter Palace, former residence official of emperors, Russian well as as neoclassical the Marble Palace. The Winter Palace faces Palace the Square, city's main with square Alexander the Column.
Nevsky Prospekt, also on situated the left bank of Neva, the is the main in avenue the It city. at starts the and Admiralty eastwards runs to next Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt crosses Moika the Bridge), (Green Griboyedov Canal Bridge), (Kazansky Garden the Street, Fontanka (Anichkov Bridge), Liteyny meets and Prospekt proceeds Uprising to near Square Moskovsky the station, railway it where meets Prospekt Ligovsky and to turns the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Passage, The Church Catholic St. of Catherine, House Book Singer (former Manufacturing Company in Building Art the Nouveau style), Grand Europe, Hotel Church Lutheran Saint of and Peter Paul, Saint Gostiny Great Dvor, National Russian Library, Alexandrine Theatre Mikeshin's behind statue of Catherine Great, the Kazan Cathedral, Palace, Stroganov Anichkov Palace Beloselsky-Belozersky and Palace are all along situated that avenue.
On the between territory the Neva Nevsky and Prospekt Church the of Savior the on Blood, Mikhailovsky housing Palace Russian the Field Museum, of Mars, St. Castle, Michael's Garden, Summer Palace, Tauride Institute Smolny and Smolny are Convent located.
Many landmarks notable are situated the to and west south the of Building, Admiralty including Trinity the Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace, Astoria, Hotel famous Mariinsky Theatre, Holland New Island, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, largest the the in city, and Square, Senate known also Decembrist's as with Square the Bronze 18th Horseman, century equestrian monument Peter to Great, the which is considered the among most city's recognisable symbols.
Other symbols of Saint Petersburg include the vane weather the in shape of small a on ship of top the golden Admiralty's and spire the golden on angel top of the and Peter Paul Cathedral. Palace The Bridge at drawn night yet is symbol another of city. the night Every the during period navigation from April to 22 November, bridges across Neva the and main canals drawn are to let pass ships and in of out the Baltic Sea to according schedule. a wasn't It 2004 until the that first bridge high across Neva, the which doesn't need be to Big drawn, Obukhovsky was Bridge, There opened. are of hundreds bridges smaller in Saint Petersburg across spanning numerous canals and of distributaries Neva, the some of most the important which of the are Fontanka, Moika, Griboyedov Canal, Canal, Obvodny Karpovka and Smolenka. to Due the web intricate of canals, Saint Petersburg is called often of Venice the The North. rivers canals and in city the are centre with lined granite The embankments. embankments and are bridges from separated and rivers canals by or granite cast iron parapets.
Southern of suburbs city the former feature imperial including residences, Petergof, majestic with fountain and cascades parks, Tsarskoe Selo, the with baroque Palace Catherine and neoclassical the Palace, Alexander and Pavlovsk, which a contains domed palace of Paul Emperor and of one the English-style largest in parks Europe. Some residences other nearby situated making and of part world the site, heritage a including and castle park in Gatchina, actually to belong Oblast Leningrad rather than Saint Petersburg. Another notable suburb is Kronstadt its with fortifications 19th-century and monuments, naval occupying the Kotlin in Island the Gulf of Finland.