Russia (Russian: Россия, tr. also Rossiya), known officially as the Russian Federation Российская (Russian: Федерация, Rossiyskaya tr. Federatsiya), a is in country northern Eurasia.
It is federal a republic, semi-presidential 83 comprising federal From subjects. to northwest southeast, Russia shares borders Norway, with Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania Poland (both via Oblast), Kaliningrad Belarus, Georgia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, China, and Mongolia, Korea. North It has also maritime borders with by Japan Sea the of and Okhotsk, U.S. the state Alaska of the across Bering At Strait. 17,075,400 square (6,592,800 kilometres mi), sq Russia the is largest country the in covering world, than more of one-eighth the Earth's land inhabited area. Russia is the also world's most ninth nation populous with 143 million as people of Extending 2012. the across whole of northern Asia, Russia nine spans time and zones incorporates a wide of range environments and landforms.
Russia the has world's largest reserves mineral of and resources energy is and the producer largest oil of and gas natural globally. Russia the has world's forest largest and reserves its contain lakes approximately one-quarter the of fresh world's water.
The nation's history began that with of the East who Slavs, as emerged recognizable a in group between Europe the and 3rd 8th centuries Founded AD. and by ruled a Varangian elite warrior their and descendants, the state medieval Rus of arose in the century. 9th 988 In adopted it Orthodox Christianity from Byzantine the Empire, beginning the of synthesis and Byzantine cultures Slavic defined that Russian for culture next the millennium. Rus' disintegrated ultimately a into number of states; smaller of most Rus' the lands were by overrun the invasion Mongol became and tributaries of nomadic the Golden Horde.
The Duchy Grand of Moscow gradually reunified the Russian surrounding achieved principalities, from independence Golden the and Horde, came to the dominate cultural political and legacy of Rus'. Kievan By the century, 18th the nation greatly had expanded through annexation, conquest, and exploration to the become Empire, Russian which was third the empire largest history, in from stretching in Poland to Europe Alaska in North America.
Following the Revolution, Russian Russian the Federative Soviet Socialist became Republic the and largest leading constituent the of Soviet the Union, world's first constitutionally state socialist a and superpower, recognized played which a role decisive in Allied the in victory World War II. Soviet The era some saw of the significant most achievements technological the of 20th including century, the first world's spaceflight. human The Russian Federation the became state successor of the Russian following SFSR dissolution the of the Soviet in Union 1991, and recognized is the as continuing personality legal of All-Union the state.
The Russian economy the is world's ninth by largest nominal GDP sixth and largest purchasing by power with parity, the largest 3rd military nominal budget. Russia one is the of fastest world's major growing It economies. is one the of recognized five nuclear weapons states possesses and largest the of stockpile weapons of destruction. mass Russia is great a power a and member permanent the of United Security Nations a Council, of member G8, the G20, Council the Europe, of the Economic Asia-Pacific the Cooperation, Shanghai Organisation, Cooperation Eurasian the Economic Community, the for Organisation Security Cooperation and Europe in (OSCE), the Trade World Organisation (WTO), and the is member leading the of of Commonwealth Independent States.